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Trapdoor Hash Functions and Their Applications


We introduce a new primitive, called {\em trapdoor hash functions} (TDH), which are hash functions $\mathsf{H}: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^\sec$ with additional trapdoor function-like properties. Specifically, given an index $i\in[n]$, TDHs allow for sampling an encoding key $\ek$ (that hides $i$) along with a corresponding trapdoor. Furthermore, given $\mathsf{H}(x)$, a hint value $\mathsf{E}(\ek,x)$, and the trapdoor corresponding to $\ek$, the $i^{th}$ bit of $x$ can be efficiently recovered. In this setting, one of our main questions is: How small can the hint value $\mathsf{E}(\ek,x)$ be? We obtain constructions where the hint is only \emph{one bit} long based on DDH, QR, DCR, or LWE. This primitive opens a floodgate of applications for low-communication secure computation. We mainly focus on two-message protocols between a receiver and a sender, with private inputs $x$ and $y$, resp., where the receiver should learn $f(x,y)$. We wish to optimize the \emph{(download) rate} of such protocols, namely the asymptotic ratio between the size of the output and the sender's message. Using TDHs, we obtain: \begin{enumerate} \item The first protocols for (two-message) \emph{rate-1 string OT} based on DDH, QR, or LWE. This has several useful consequences, such as: \begin{enumerate} \item The first constructions of PIR with communication cost poly-logarithmic in the database size based on DDH or QR. These protocols are in fact rate-1 when considering block PIR. \item The first constructions of a \emph{semi-compact} homomorphic encryption scheme for branching programs, where the encrypted output grows only with the program {\em length}, based on DDH or QR. \item The first constructions of lossy trapdoor functions with input to output ratio approaching 1 based on DDH, QR or LWE. \item The first {\em constant-rate} LWE-based construction of a 2-message ``statistically sender-private'' OT protocol in the plain model. \end{enumerate} \item The first {\em rate-1} protocols (under any assumption) for $n$ parallel OTs and matrix-vector products from DDH, QR or LWE. \end{enumerate} We further consider the setting where $f$ evaluates a RAM program $y$ with running time $T\ll |x|$ on $x$. We obtain the first protocols with communication sublinear in the size of $x$, namely $T\cdot\sqrt{|x|}$ or $T\cdot\sqrt[3]{|x|}$, based on DDH or, resp., pairings (and correlated-input secure hash functions).

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2019-07-18 12:08:25